让英语课堂动起来

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副标题:——浅议新课程理念下的英语语法教学

内容摘要:新课程实施以来,英语教学取得了长足进步,尤其是学生的听力和口语水平提高比较快。但在语法方面,尽管许多教师也进行了各种各样的尝试或探索,然而从学生的掌握情况来看,现状并不乐观,最突出的表现就是学生的书面表达中语法错误层出不穷。教师教得辛苦,而学生却学得枯燥,教学效果不

GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文:[1].让英语课堂动起来.[J]或者报纸[N].教学月刊:中学版,(7上):20-22

正文内容

  新课程实施以来,英语教学取得了长足进步,尤其是学生的听力和口语水平提高比较快。但在语法方面,尽管许多教师也进行了各种各样的尝试或探索,然而从学生的掌握情况来看,现状并不乐观,最突出的表现就是学生的书面表达中语法错误层出不穷。教师教得辛苦,而学生却学得枯燥,教学效果不理想。

  语法在语言掌握和运用中起着桥梁作用,因此,在英语教学中逃避或回避语法教学或者仍旧对学生进行满堂灌显然都不能解决实质问题。那么,我们应该如何走出语法教学的困境,让学生在语法学习时既学得轻松又学得高效呢?经过实践探索。,笔者发现,在语法教学中多与学生互动,让学生积极参与到课堂教学中来,努力让英语课堂动起来,真正让学生在用中学,语法教学才会有成效。以下是几种笔者认为比较容易让课堂动起来的语法教学法。

  一、情境会话法

  在传统的语法教学中,教师是中心。课堂上一般都是“教师讲,学生听;做练习,对答案”这样一个教学模式,有些教师还会举一些既典型、又精彩、且容易理解的例子,但总体上课堂气氛还是比较沉闷,学生对所学的语法知识比较容易遗忘,教学效果不理想。自从笔者在语法教学中使用情境会话法以来,教学效果大不一样。以前,笔者在教学时一般都是先介绍某一语法知识的概念,接着举例让学生熟悉和体会,然后做一些选择题,最后翻译几个中译英的句子。结果一节课下来只有几个特别好的学生能基本掌握,大多数学生还是云里雾里,没有掌握。而在情境会话法中,笔者尽量为学生创设含有所教语法知识的语言情境,与学生互动,让学生感悟,在学生理解的基础上渗透强化语法知识,从而达到从感性认识到理性认识的转变,不但使学生学得轻松,而且牢固掌握所学语法知识。以教学虚拟语气为例,笔者是这样教学的。

  Teacher; Am I a Chinese teacher or an English teacher?

  Students:An English teacher.

  Teacher:Well,if I were a Chinese teacher,would I teach you English?

  Students:No.

  Teacher:Right.If I were a Chinese teacher,I would teach you Chinese.That is to say,if I were not an English teacher,I would not teach you English.Is that right?

  Students:Yes.

  Teacher:Are you teachers or students?

  Students :We're students.

  Teacher:Well,if you were teachers,would you sit here and take my lessons every day?

  Students:No.

  Teacher:So,if you were teachers,you would not sit here and take my lessons every day.Then,if you were teachers,what would you do every day? Would you take lessons or give lessons?

  Students:We would give lessons.

  Teacher:Yes,if you were teachers,you would givelessons.

  笔者把最后一句话写在黑板上,并在were和would give下面画红线,然后简要介绍虚拟语气中的谓语动词形式,接着与个别学生继续操练。

  Teacher:Are you a bird?

  Student 1:No.

  Teacher:If you were a bird,what would happen to you?

  Student 1:If 1 were a bird,I would have two wings.If I were a bird,I could fly in the sky.

  Teacher:If you were a businessman now,what would you sell?

  Student 2:If I were a businessman now,I would sell good chalk to the schools.

  Teacher:If you were a duck,what could you do very well?

  Student 3:If I were a duck,I could swim very well.

  Teacher :If you had a lot of money,what would you do now?

  Student 4:If I had a lot of money,I would buy a large house.

  Student 5:If I had a lot of money,I would run a company.

  …

  通过以上情境感知和模拟操练,学生不仅理解了虚拟语气的实际意思,同时也掌握了虚拟语气的基本表达形式,而且印象深刻。

  二、游戏法

  游戏法,顾名思义就是让学生在游戏中学习。游戏的本质是假设、模拟,在想象的外部环境中有意识地进行模仿活动。游戏实际上是为学生创造一种极为良好的语言环境。在游戏中,学生的注意力高度集中,思维的潜力得到充分挖掘,他们的聪明才智得到充分发挥,他们平时学到的知识得到充分运用,教学效果明显提高。如在教学定语从句时,当学生基本明白定语从句的结构特点和语法含义后,笔者用游戏的形式加深学生的理解。笔者拿出四样事先准备好的东西——一本厚厚的书、一支长长的铅笔、一只铅笔盒和一块手表,然后对学生说:“Here,boys and girls.I have four things on the teacher's desk.Listen and then guess what I look for.I'm looking for the thing that is very long.”学生回答:“The pencil.”教师:“Please answer like this:The thing that you are looking for is the pencil.”然后把其他几样物品也用同样的方法一一说完。接着让学生用定语从句对以上物品进行解释,如:The thing that looks long is a pencil.最后,让学生用定语从句描述班上的同学,而其他同学根据描述进行猜测。这样的游戏教学,不仅激发了学生的兴趣和热情,同时也训练了学生的表达能力。

  三、归纳法

  语法教学中的归纳法就是让学生对一组含有相同语法知识的句子进行观察,归纳出句子中共性的东西,然后在教师的点拨下,聚焦到该语法知识上来。该教学方法与传统的“教师教,学生学”最大的不同点就是教学的主体发生了变化。原来学生只是一味地接受,而现在学生处在主动位置,体现了以学生为中心的教学精神。如在教学分词作状语时,学生对到底用现在分词还是过去分词作状语感到困惑。如果单是教师讲学生听的话,由于一些术语既专业又枯燥,学生往往没兴趣听讲,因此很难理解,教学效果自然不好。由此,笔者在教学分词作状语这一语法知识时先给了学生以下一组既有过去分词作状语义有现在分词作状语的句子,然后引导学生理解句子的意思,并要求观察分词与主语之间的关系。

  Seen from the hill,our town looks very beautiful.

  Seeing the tiger,all of us were very afraid.

  Walking in the street,I met an old friend of mine.

  Hurt by he boyfriend,the girl felt angry.

  Following a group of students,the new teacher came into the classroom.

  Followed by a group of students,the new teacher came into the classroom.

  有了教师的点拨,再加上这些句子中分词作状语的语法知识比较典型,对比又比较明显,学生很快就掌握了该语法的结构特点,接着教师再对该语法点进行言简意赅的总结,学生就全都会了。

  语法教学一直是英语教学的重点,更是一个难点。但只要广大教师积极开动脑筋,总能找到一些既快又好的教学方法。让学生在语法课堂上动起来,充分发挥学生的主体作用,让学生最大程度地参与到语法教学中来,让他们亲身去感受去体会去领悟,从而获取知识或经验,这不失为语法教学的好办法。

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