高中英语作文两种常见错误及分析

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内容摘要:一、引言  英语写作是高中学生感到很困难的一件事。在学生的习作中,我们不难发现这样或者那样的错误。其实如果学生平时养成一种正确使用和模仿的意识,这些错误是很容易减少或者避免的。笔者根据一线教学实际对学生英语写作中常见的两种错误进行仔细分析并提出改正方法,再

GB/T 7714-2015 格式引文:[1].高中英语作文两种常见错误及分析.[J]或者报纸[N].中小学教学研究,(7):10-11

正文内容

  一、引言

  英语写作是高中学生感到很困难的一件事。在学生的习作中,我们不难发现这样或者那样的错误。其实如果学生平时养成一种正确使用和模仿的意识,这些错误是很容易减少或者避免的。笔者根据一线教学实际对学生英语写作中常见的两种错误进行仔细分析并提出改正方法,再提供一些配套练习加以巩固,主要目的是让学生在今后的写作中避免这些错误的出现,从而提高学生的英语写作水平。

  二、问题的描述和分析

  1.不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)

  不问断句子是指几个独立的句子放在一起,没有用正确的标点符号或者连词分开的句子(To continue a sentence without a punctuation mark where it should be.)。请看下面两个例句:

  例句1:Jim's a photographer he's going to the ballpark to take pictures.

  例句2:I am going to school,if I don't get there on time,1 will be late,my teacher will punish me,I will have to stay after class.

  以上两个例句就是典型的不间断句子。有时候本族语写作者也有可能犯这种写作错误,在中国高中学生的作文中,这种错误更是屡见不鲜,这主要是中文和英文两种语言的结构和思维不同造成的:中文长句是由逗号隔开,而英文句子应该用句号分隔或者使用合适的连词。这种中文思维在英语写作的时候,学生不自觉地就迁移到所写的文章中去了。比如学生想用英文表达这样一个句子:太阳很烈,涂一些防晒霜吧。大部分学生的英文会是这样:

  The sun is high.put on some sunblock.

  这样,一个不间断句子就产生了。

  2.排比修辞错误(parallelism)

  排比是一种修辞方式,它用一连串结构相似、内容密切相关、语气一致的句子或句子成分来表示意思,用以增强语势,使内容得到强调(To use the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.)。

  排比修辞错误主要是指使用排比修辞的时候,处于同等地位的词、词组或者句子结构不一致。前不久,我的一个学生在做练习的时候,碰到这样一个判断正误的句子:

  例句3:She is an adult.,married and had a young boy.按照出题人的思路,这个句子应该是一个错句,它所犯的错误就是排比修辞错误。英文排比句子的结构一般是:主语+谓语+A和B,或者是:主语 +谓语+A,B和C。这里的A、B、C的修辞格应该一致,不一致就会出现排比修辞错误。另外,排比中的并列成分如果涉及到顺序或者大小先后关系,英文中应该按照由小到大、由不重要到重要这样一个顺序排列,犹如日期的表达:中文是年月日,而英文是日月年。我们来看这个句子怎么用英文来表达:我们将为全世界,我们的国家以及我们的家庭而奋斗。如果我们用“We will dedicate our effort to the world,our nation and our family”来表达的话,就犯了一个排比修辞错误。正确的表达应该是:We will dedicate our effort to our family.our nation and the world.我们再来看一个有排比修辞错误的句子:

  例句4:She likes to sing and dancing.

  三、问题的解决

  1.不间断句子的解决方法

  (1)使用句号来分隔每个句子。请看下面例句:

  Human nature is seldom as simple as it appears.hasty judgments are therefore often wrong.

  这个不间断句子可以通过把逗号改成句号来解决:

  Human nature is seldom as simple as it appears,Hasty judgments are therefore often wrong.

  (2)使用分号把不间断句子变成独立分句。

  (3)用连词来连接两个独立分句,这些连词有and,or,after,although,before,unless,as,because,even though,if,since,until,when,while.如上文提到的句子可以这样来修正:

  Jim's a photographer,and he's going to the ballpark to take pictures.

  另外一个句子可以这样来修正:

  The sun is high.so put on sunblock.

  再来看一个例句:

  The night was cold we forgot to bring our coats.可以这样来修正:

  The night was cold,and we forgot to bring our coats.

  2.排比修辞错误的解决方法

  (1)别混淆形式。排比成分是-ing形式的都用-ing形式,是to do形式的都用to do形式,是副词的都用副词。请看下面例句:

  Mary likes hiking,swimming,and to ride a bicycle.应该修改成:

  Mary likes hiking,swimming,and riding a bicycle.

  The production manager was asked to write his report quickly,accurately,and in a detailed manner.

  应该修改成:

  The production manager was asked to write his report quickly,accurately,and thoroughly.

  而上文提到的例句:She-likes to sing and dancing.可以修改成:She likes to sing and to dance.另一个句子She is an adult,married and had a young boy.可以修改成She is an adult,a married woman,and a mother of a young boy.

  (2)排比句子如果是从句,要全部使用从句。请看下面例句:

  The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep,that they should not eat too much,and to do some warming-up exercises before the game.应该改成:The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep,that they should not eat too much,and that they should do some warming-up exercises before the game.

  (3)冒号后面的排比在形式上应该保持一致。请看下面例句:

  The dictionary can be used for these purposes:to find word meanings,pronunciations,correct spellings,and looking up irregular verbs.应该改成:The dictionary can be used for these purposes:to find word meanings,pronunciations,correct spellings,and irregular verbs.

  以上提到的两种英语作文错误只是常见的错误,其实我们高中生在英语写作过程中还有很多其他的错误,我们需要做的是应该给学生指出错误并提出修正错误的方法,并让学生多读多写,这样才能尽可能少犯错误,写出地道的英语作文。

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